Microvascular reactivity monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy is impaired after induction of anaesthesia in cardiac surgery patients: An observational study

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

Induction of anaesthesia causes significant macrohaemodynamic changes, but little is known about its effects on the microcirculation. However, alterations in microvascular perfusion are known to be associated with impaired tissue oxygenation and organ dysfunction. Microvascular reactivity can be assessed with vascular occlusion testing, which evaluates the response of tissue oxygen saturation to transient ischaemia and reperfusion.

OBJECTIVE

The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of an opioid-based anaesthesia induction on microvascular reactivity. We hypothesised that despite minimal blood pressure changes, microvascular function would be impaired.

DESIGN

Prospective, observational study.

SETTING

Single-centre, tertiary university teaching hospital, Belgium.

PATIENTS

Thirty-five adult patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

INTERVENTION

Microvascular reactivity was assessed before and 30 min after anaesthesia induction by means of vascular occlusion testing and near-infrared spectroscopy.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Tissue oxygen saturations, desaturation rate, recovery time (time from release of cuff to the maximum value) and rate of recovery were determined.

RESULTS

Data are expressed as median (minimum to maximum). Tissue oxygen saturation was higher after induction of anaesthesia [70 (54 to 78) vs. 73 (55 to 94)%, P = 0.015]. Oxygen consumption decreased after induction, appreciable by the higher minimum tissue oxygen saturation [45 (29 to 69) vs. 53 (28 to 81)%, P < 0.001] and the slower desaturation rate [11 (4 to 18) vs. 9 (5 to 16)% min-1, P < 0.001]. After induction of anaesthesia, recovery times were longer [40 (20 to 120) vs. 48 (24 to 356) s, P = 0.004] and the rate of recovery was lower [114 (12 to 497) vs. 80 (3 to 271)% min-1, P < 0.001].

CONCLUSION

After induction of anaesthesia, oxygen consumption was decreased. The longer recovery times and slower rates of recovery indicate impaired microvascular reactivity after induction of anaesthesia.

TRIAL REGISTRATION

The research project was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02034682).

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