Reconstructive surgery to craniofacial deformities caused by tumor ressections, traumas or congenital malformation are frequent in medicine practice. It aims to provide the patients with better quality of life and functional improvement of speech, breathing, chewing, and swallowing. Many are the techniques described in the literature to recover bone defects. This study evaluated a vascularized galeal and periosteum flap in rabbits, which could possibly substitute the bone graft in reconstructive surgery, especially for facial defects. It involved rabbits, divided into 12 groups, submitted to a surgical procedure to construct the galea and periosteum cranial flap filled with fragments of cranial bone, platelet-rich plasma, mesenchimal stem cells, and hyaluronic acid. The evaluation methods included image examinations and histological analysis.
The results demonstrated bone formation with the use of platelet-rich plasma, mesenchimal stem cells, and bone fragments. The use of several enrichment materials of osseous cellular stimulation improved the quality and bone tissue organization. The more enrichment factor used, the better the tissue quality result was.
Much research should be done to improve the methods and to analyze if results in human have the same bone formation as it happened in rabbits.