Yellow fever

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MOSQUITOS transmit yellow fever, a hemorrhagic and potentially lethal RNA virus that's caused an outbreak in Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Uganda for the first time in 30 years.1 This vector-borne disease is spread by the Aedes and Haemagogus species of mosquito. Yellow fever has also been identified in Kenya (2 confirmed cases), and China (11 confirmed cases).2 Due to this spread to border nations through nonimmunized travelers, more than 30 million people were vaccinated.3
Angola announced the end of the outbreak at the end of 2016, and Democratic Republic of Congo followed in February 2017.2 Today, a new outbreak of the virus has begun in Brazil with over 1,300 cases and 249 confirmed deaths.4 At the peak of the outbreak in summer 2016, 47 countries declared the virus as endemic. Today, the number of countries identified as at risk for transmission has been reduced to 42; 29 of these are in Africa.5-7
Transmission and infection of yellow fever occur in largely unvaccinated populations of the tropical and subtropical areas of sub-Saharan Africa and Central and South America.8 Vaccines are recommended for those living in or traveling to countries bordering Angola, certain areas of Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, and many more, including Cameroon and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa.9 Angola requires all travelers over age 9 months to have proof of vaccination upon entering the country; many countries are also requiring proof of vaccination if a traveler has come from Angola, and, in some cases, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda.7 The United States doesn't require the vaccination from travelers, nor does WHO recommend it.
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