Predictors of Survival for Nonhighly Selected Patients Undergoing Resuscitation With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation After Cardiac Arrest

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In several case reports and case series, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during chest compression (CPR) has been shown to be a reasonable tool to improve outcome of patients under resuscitation. Although recommendations for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) include younger patients with shockable rhythm and short previous CPR-time, it remains unclear if nonhighly selected patients have a similar outcome. Aim of this study was to determine outcome in our nonhighly selected patient population treated with ECPR and investigate possible predictors of survival. We made a retrospective single-center study of adults who underwent ECPR for in-hospital cardiac arrest between June 2008 and September 2016. Outcome and predictors of survival were identified. In this period of time, 59 patients underwent ECPR due to cardiac arrest. Fifteen patients (25.4%) survived discharge of which all had a good neurological outcome (cerebral performance category ≤ 2). Survival to discharge of patients with shockable rhythm (ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia) was 40.7%. Serum lactate ≥ 8, pulseless electrical activity (PEA) or asystole and male gender could be identified as predictors for low survival rate. Age, body mass index, renal replacement–dependent kidney injury had no significant influence on survival outcome. Mean CPR-time was 41.1 minutes (interquartile range, ±29.25 minutes). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation seems to be a useful tool to improve the outcome of CPR also in nonhighly selected patients when compared with CPR alone and could be considered in patients with refractory cardiac arrest also after longer previous CPR-time. Serum lactate and heart rhythm should be taken into account for patient selection.

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