Central administration oftert-butylhydroquinone attenuates hypertension via regulating Nrf2 signaling in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of hypertensive rats
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is an important transcription factor that modulates cell antioxidant defense response against oxidative stress. The present study aimed to explore the efficacy of PVN administration of tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a selective Nrf2 activator, in hypertensive rats. 16-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were used in this study. These rats were chronic bilateral PVN infusion of tBHQ (0.8 μg/day), or oxygen free radical scavenger tempol (20 μg/h), or vehicle for 2 weeks. SHR rats had higher mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels, and sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and lower PVN levels of Nrf2, hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT) as compared with those in the WKY group. Bilateral PVN infusion of tBHQ or tempol significantly reduced MAP, RSNA, plasma NE levels in SHR rats. In addition, tBHQ treatment enhanced the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and increased the expression of HO-1, CAT and SOD1 in SHR rats. Furthermore, tBHQ attenuated PVN levels of ROS, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and restored the imbalance of neurotransmitters in PVN. Knockdown of Nrf2 in the PVN by adeno-associated virus mediated small interfering RNA abrogated the protective effects of tBHQ on hypertension. These findings suggest that PVN administration of tBHQ can attenuate hypertension by activation of the Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway.