Latent binocular function in amblyopia
Recently, psychophysical studies have shown that humans with amblyopia do have binocular function that is not normally revealed due to dominant suppressive interactions under normal viewing conditions. Here we use magnetoencephalography (MEG) combined with dichoptic visual stimulation to investigate the underlying binocular function in humans with amblyopia for stimuli that, because of their temporal properties, would be expected to bypass suppressive effects and to reveal any underlying binocular function.
We recorded contrast response functions in visual cortical area V1 of amblyopes and normal observers using a steady state visually evoked responses (SSVER) protocol. We used stimuli that were frequency-tagged at 4 Hz and 6 Hz that allowed identification of the responses from each eye and were of a sufficiently high temporal frequency (>3 Hz) to bypass suppression. To characterize binocular function, we compared dichoptic masking between the two eyes in normal and amblyopic participants as well as interocular phase differences in the two groups.
We observed that the primary visual cortex responds less to the stimulation of the amblyopic eye compared to the fellow eye. The pattern of interaction in the amblyopic visual system however was not significantly different between the amblyopic and fellow eyes. However, the amblyopic suppressive interactions were lower than those observed in the binocular system of our normal observers. Furthermore, we identified an interocular processing delay of approximately 20 ms in our amblyopic group.
To conclude, when suppression is greatly reduced, such as the case with our stimulation above 3 Hz, the amblyopic visual system exhibits a lack of binocular interactions.