CCL28 chemokine: An anchoring point bridging innate and adaptive immunity
Chemokines are an extensive family of small proteins which, in conjunction with their receptors, guide the chemotactic activity of various immune cells throughout the body. CCL28, β- or CC chemokine, is involved in the host immunity at various epithelial and mucosal linings. The unique roles of CCL28 in several facets of immune responses have attracted considerable attention and may represent a promising approach to combat various infections. CCL28 displays a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, as well as fungi. Here, we will summarize various research findings regarding the antimicrobial activity of CCL28 and the relevant mechanisms behind it. We will explore how the structure of CCL28 is involved with this activity and how this function may have evolved. CCL28 displays strong homing capabilities for B and T cells at several mucosal and epithelial sites, and orchestrates the trafficking and functioning of lymphocytes. The chemotactic and immunomodulatory features of CCL28 through the interactions with its chemokine receptors, CCR10 and CCR3, will also be discussed in detail. Thus, in this review, we emphasize the dual properties of CCL28 and suggest its role as an anchoring point bridging the innate and adaptive immunity.