Metabolism studies of chiral pesticides: A critical review
The consumption of pesticides worldwide has been growing in recent decades, and consequently the exposure of humans and other animals to them as well. However, even though it is known that chiral pesticides can behave stereoselectively, the knowledge about the risks to human health and the environment is scarce. Among the pesticides registered to date, approximately 30% have at least one center of asymmetry, and just 7% of them are currently marketed as a pure stereoisomer or as an enriched mixture of the active stereoisomer. There are several in vitro, in vivo, and in silico models available to evaluate the enantioselective metabolism of chiral pesticides aiming ecotoxicological and risk assessment. Therefore, this paper intends to provide a critical view of the metabolism of chiral pesticides in non-target species, including humans, and discuss their implications, as well as, conduct a review of the analytical techniques employed for in vitro and in vivo metabolism studies of chiral pesticides.