Sepsis and Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Population-Level Study of Comparative Outcomes of Patients Discharged From Texas Hospitals
We reviewed outcomes of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and sepsis in Texas. AML patients (0.25% of > 2 million discharges) had a higher incidence of sepsis (16% vs. 4%) and of sepsis-related mortality (30% vs. 21%), with nearly double the hospital length of stay, compared to non-AML patients with sepsis. This information can increase awareness of the risk of sepsis and the need for early intervention in AML patients.Background:
In the United States, approximately 750,000 cases of sepsis occur annually, and 28% to 50% of affected people die. Treatment is costly, often involving admission to the intensive care unit and prolonged hospitalization. We evaluated outcomes of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and sepsis in Texas.Patients and Methods:
We conducted a population-based cohort study of adults discharged from Texas hospitals during 2011, using ICD-9-CM codes and the Texas Inpatient Data Collection.Results:
A total of 2,173,776 adults were discharged from hospitals in Texas, and 5501 (0.25%) had a diagnosis of AML. Among patients with AML, 40% were ≥ 65 years old, and 52% were men. The rate of sepsis for AML patients was 16% compared to 4% for non-AML patients. Among patients with AML, sepsis was associated with pneumonia, acute renal failure, and hematologic dysfunctions in 34%, 32%, and 29% of discharges, respectively. Median length of stay, intensive care unit admission rate, and median hospital charges per stay for patients with AML and sepsis were 13 days (range, 1-133 days), 72%, and $122,333, respectively. Among in-hospital deaths due to sepsis, mortality was 30% in AML patients compared to 21% in non-AML patients.Conclusion:
Patients with AML had a higher sepsis incidence and higher mortality rates overall, especially in relation to stem-cell transplant recipients and those with other types of cancer. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether early intervention or treatment in specialized centers could improve outcomes and reduce costs of care, particularly in the management of serious complications such as sepsis.