Growing evidence suggests an association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and cognitive decline in elderly persons. However, results from population-based studies have been conflicting, possibly owing to different methods to assess SDB or cognitive domains, making it difficult to draw conclusions on this association.Objective
To provide a quantitative synthesis of population-based studies on the relationship between SDB and risk of cognitive impairment.Data Sources
PubMed, EMBASE, and PsychINFO were systematically searched to identify peer-reviewed articles published in English before January 2017 that reported on the association between SDB and cognitive function.Study Selection
We included cross-sectional and prospective studies with at least 200 participants with a mean participant age of 40 years or older.Data Extraction and Synthesis
Data were extracted independently by 2 investigators. We extracted and pooled adjusted risk ratios from prospective studies and standard mean differences from cross-sectional studies, using random-effect models. This meta-analysis followed the PRISMA guidelines and also adhered to the MOOSE guidelines.Main Outcomes and Measures
Cognitive outcomes were based on standard tests or diagnosis of cognitive impairment. Sleep-disordered breathing was ascertained by apnea-hypopnea index or clinical diagnosis.Results
We included 14 studies, 6 of which were prospective, covering a total of 4 288 419 men and women. Pooled analysis of the 6 prospective studies indicated that those with SDB were 26% (risk ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05-1.50) more likely to develop cognitive impairment, with no evidence of publication bias but significant heterogeneity between studies. After removing 1 study that introduced significant heterogeneity, the pooled risk ratio was 1.35 (95% CI, 1.11-1.65). Pooled analysis of the 7 cross-sectional studies suggested that those with SDB had slightly worse executive function (standard mean difference, −0.05; 95% CI, −0.09 to 0.00), with no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. Sleep-disordered breathing was not associated with global cognition or memory.Conclusions and Relevance
Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment and a small worsening in executive function. Further studies are required to determine the mechanisms linking these common conditions and whether treatment of SDB might reduce risk of cognitive impairment.