Estimated annual health care expenditures in individuals with peripheral arterial disease.
The clinical impact of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is well characterized and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Health care-related expenditures among individuals with PAD, particularly for patients, are not well described.METHODS
Health care-related expenditure data from the 2011 to 2014 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys were analyzed for individuals with a diagnosis of PAD compared with U.S. adults 40 years of age and older. Weighted average annual expenditures were estimated using a multivariable generalized linear model. Subanalyses were also performed for out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures by insurance type.RESULTS
Adjusted for age, gender, and race, individuals with a diagnosis of PAD (weighted n = 640,098) had significantly higher average annual health care-related expenditures compared with the U.S. adult population as a whole (weighted n = 148,387,362). Average annual expenditures per individual for patients with PAD were $11,553 (95% confidence interval [CI], $8137-$14,968) compared with only $4219 (95% CI, $4064-$4375; P < .001) for those without. Expenditures were driven by increased prescription medication expenditures as well as by expenditures for inpatient care, outpatient hospital-based care, and outpatient office-based care. Individuals with PAD had significantly higher OOP prescription medication expenditures ($386 [95% CI, $258-$515] vs $192 [95% CI, $183-$202]; P = .003), which varied by insurance type, ranging from $179 (95% CI, $70-$288) for those with Medicare to $1196 (95% CI, $106-$2244) for those without insurance, although this difference did not reach significance.CONCLUSIONS
Individuals with a diagnosis of PAD have higher health care-related expenditures and OOP expenses compared with other US adults. These expenditures compound lost wages, care by family members, and lost opportunity costs, increasing the burden carried by patients with PAD.