The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of substrates (glass versus hydroxyapatite [HA]) and growth media (SHI medium versus a modified artificial saliva medium with cysteine) on the microbial community of saliva-derived biofilm in vitro. 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology was used to analyze the microbial community of saliva-derived biofilm cultured for 72 h anaerobically. The metagenomes of biofilms were predicted from the clusters of orthologous groups. No significant difference was found between the saliva-derived biofilms grown on HA and glass in ACE, Chao, Shannon and Simpson indices. The abundances of only a few bacteria on HA were significantly different from those on glass with a low relative abundance (<0.5%). Compared with the biofilms developed in a modified artificial saliva medium with cysteine, biofilms in SHI medium were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in diversity. Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size measurement showed that some obligate anaerobic genera (Lactobacillus, Veillonella, Porphyromonas and Leptotrichia) were more abundant in SHI medium biofilms. The biofilms grown in different media were also significantly different in predicted gene categories. In conclusion, the growth media, not the substrates, have significant effects on the microbial community of saliva-derived biofilm in vitro.