High frequency of gastrointestinal manifestations in myotonic dystrophy type 1 and type 2
To analyze gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations, their progression over time, and medications being used to treat GI symptoms in a large cohort of patients with myotonic dystrophy types 1 (DM1) and 2 (DM2).Methods:
We analyzed patient-reported data and medical records in a national registry cohort at baseline and 5 years.Results:
At baseline, the majority of patients reported trouble swallowing in DM1 (55%; n = 499 of 913) and constipation in DM2 (53%; n = 96 of 180). Cholecystectomy occurred in 16.5% of patients with DM1 and 12.8% of patients with DM2, on average before 45 years of age. The use of medications indicated for gastroesophageal reflux disease was reported by 22.5% of DM1 and 18.9% of patients with DM2. Greater risk of a GI manifestation was associated with higher body mass index and longer disease duration in DM1 and female sex in DM2. At the 5-year follow-up, the most common new manifestations were trouble swallowing in patients with DM1 and constipation in patients with DM2.Conclusions:
GI manifestations were common in both DM1 and DM2, with a relatively high frequency of gallbladder removal in DM1 and DM2 occurring at a younger age compared to normative data in the literature. Studies are needed to determine the pathomechanism of how sex, weight gain, and duration of disease contribute to GI manifestations and how these manifestations affect quality of life and clinical care for patients with DM1 and DM2.