Outcomes of patients hospitalized with peptic ulcer disease diagnosed in acute upper endoscopy

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Abstract

Objectives

The incidence and complications of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) have declined, but mortality from bleeding ulcers has remained unchanged. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the significance of PUD among patients admitted for acute upper endoscopy and to evaluate the survival of PUD patients.

Patients and methods

In this prospective, observational cohort study, data on 1580 acute upper endoscopy cases during 2012–2014 were collected. A total of 649 patients were included with written informed consent. Data on patients’ characteristics, living habits, comorbidities, drug use, endoscopy and short-term and long-term survival were collected.

Results

Of all patients admitted for endoscopy, 147/649 (23%) had PUD with the main symptom of melena. Of these PUD patients, 35% had major stigmata of bleeding (Forrest Ia–IIb) in endoscopy. Patients with major stigmata had significantly more often renal insufficiency, lower level of blood pressure with tachycardia and lower level of haemoglobin, platelets and ratio of thromboplastin time. No differences in drug use, Charlson comorbidity class, BMI, smoking or alcohol use were found. Of the PUD patients, 31% were Helicobacter pylori positive. The 30-day mortality was 0.7% (95% confidence interval: 0.01–4.7), 1-year mortality was 12.9% (8.4–19.5) and the 2-year mortality was 19.4% (13.8–26.8), with no difference according to major or minor stigmata of bleeding. Comorbidity (Charlson>1) was associated with decreased survival (P=0.029) and obesity (BMI≥30) was associated with better survival (P=0.023).

Conclusion

PUD is still the most common cause for acute upper endoscopy with very low short-term mortality. Comorbidity, but not the stigmata of bleeding, was associated with decreased long-term survival.

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