A Comprehensive Review of Stem-Cell Therapy
In 1998, a team of researchers led by James Thomson reported their successful creation of the first human embryonic stem cells 1 . Their research ushered in a new era for drug discovery and transplantation medicine. In the past few decades, molecular genetics has progressed from the laboratory to the clinic in the hopes of finding new applications. The use of developmental biology focused on translational research has helped to shape the field of regenerative medicine. Rapid advances in tissue engineering and cellular therapies have caused a paradigm shift from pharmacological treatment to the construction of biological substitutes that can regenerate diseased organs or injured tissues 2 . In orthopaedics, conventional strategies for treating several musculoskeletal conditions, such as osteoarthritis, still remain ineffective 3 . Orthopaedic investigators have begun investigating cell-based techniques to develop novel therapeutic agents to address biological solutions for orthopaedic conditions.