Solitary Frontal Sinus Fractures Compared to Multiple Facial Fractures, Energy Impact Dependency

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Abstract

Frontal sinus fractures account for 2% to 15% of maxillofacial injuries. Up to 66% to 87% of the patients with frontal sinus fractures experience associated facial fractures. The majority of classifications used today categorize frontal sinus fractures depending on the integrity of the anterior table, posterior table, and the nasofrontal outflow. A retrospective study was performed, which included 24 patients diagnosed with frontal sinus fractures. Treatment in all patients consisted of open reduction and bone fixation. We analyzed population variables, injury etiology, fracture site, associated craniofacial injuries, surgical technique employed, handling of the nasofrontal duct, and postoperative complications. The most frequent etiology was falling accidents. Fifty-eight percent of the fractures involved both the anterior and posterior tables. Sixty-six percent experienced associated facial fractures. Fifty percent of frontal sinus fractures were treated by open reduction internal fixation as the only treatment, 33.3% underwent sinus obliteration, and 16.6% were treated with cranialization. Frontal sinus fractures resulting from high-energy impact exhibited additional facial bone fractures in 100% of the cases, whereas fractures following low-energy impact showed involvement of additional facial fractures in only 27% of the cases. In this report, we suggest a modification to the anteroposterior classification of frontal sinus fractures. In addition to the involvement of the anterior and posterior walls and the degree of dislocation, high and low energy impact can direct us to the involvement of additional facial fractures and influence the surgical strategy.

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