The Current Landscape and Lessons from Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Past, Present, and Future
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has changed the standard of care for Clostridium difficile infection. However, there is limited data focusing on efficacy and safety profile of FMT in patients with C. difficile infection with underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including the risk of IBD flare. Recently, there is also emerging evidence supporting the role of FMT to treat IBD including promising randomized trials in ulcerative colitis. However, with heterogeneity across these studies, the clinical application of this emerging therapy has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we aim to review the current landscape of this rapidly developing field, mapping the efficacy and safety of FMT (1) to treat C. difficile infection in patients with IBD, (2) to treat underlying IBD, and (3) outline ongoing clinical trials and the future of the microbiome space.