Focus on the therapeutic efficacy of 3BNC117 against HIV-1:In vitrostudies,in vivostudies, clinical trials and challenges

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Abstract

3BNC117, which was discovered in 2011, is a broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) and specifically neutralizes the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) by targeting the CD4-binding site. This is the first comprehensive review that focuses on the role of 3BNC117 in the prevention of HIV-1 and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Briefly, 3BNC117 neutralizes many HIV/SHIV strains in vitro, blocks HIV-1 acquisition in animal models via a pre-exposure prophylaxis, alleviates HIV-1-associated viremia via a post-exposure therapeutic effect, prevents the establishment of latent HIV-1 reservoirs, and induces both humoral and cellular anti-HIV immune responses in vivo. The outcomes of Phase I and Phase IIa clinical trials in 2015 and 2016 showed the safety, tolerability, and therapeutic efficacy of 3BNC117 in HIV-1-infected human individuals. Nevertheless, anti-3BNC117 antibodies and HIV-1 strains resistant to 3BNC117 pose clinical challenges to immunotherapy with 3BNC117, so potential strategies for optimizing the potency of 3BNC117 are suggested here. Predictably, HIV-1 prevention and AIDS treatment will benefit from combinational immunotherapies with 3BNC117 and other pharmaceuticals (bNAbs, antiretroviral medicines, viral inducers, etc.) in the near future.

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