IgG4-related disease in the eye and ocular adnexa

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Abstract

Purpose of review

IgG4-related disease is a multi-organ fibro-inflammatory disease with characteristic histopathology showing lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, increased IgG4+ plasma cells and elevated IgG4/IgG ratios (>40%). The lacrimal gland is the most common ocular site of involvement. Scleritis and intraocular involvement in IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) have recently been reported. The purpose of this review is to describe orbital and intraocular IgG4-ROD with a focus on publications since 2016.

Recent findings

Case reports of scleritis and uveitis in IgG4-ROD have been described since 2012. Systemic prednisone is recommended as the first-line treatment, but immunosuppressive therapy may be required for steroid-sparing or in steroid-resistant cases. High rates of systemic IgG4-RD involvement exist in patients with bilateral IgG4-ROD or if the lacrimal gland is involved. Rituximab is the most specific immune targeted therapy available with high rates of remission.

Summary

IgG4-ROD is an emerging cause of scleritis and uveitis and should be considered in any patient with multisystem inflammatory disease. New targeted immune therapies may improve outcomes and lead to clinical remission.

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