Analysis of Invasive Community-Acquired Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Infections During a Period of Declining Community Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections at a Large Children’s Hospital

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Abstract

Background:

The epidemiology of community acquired (CA) Staphylococcus aureus infections is changing in the United States. We investigated the current epidemiology of S. aureus infections at Texas Children’s Hospital.

Methods:

Patients with CA-S. aureus skin and soft tissue and invasive infections were retrospectively identified from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. Invasive CA-MSSA isolates were characterized by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, Spa typing, agr type and presence of lukSF-PV (pvl) genes. Medical records were reviewed. Statistical analyses included Fisher exact, χ2 for trend and Wilcoxon tests.

Results:

CA-MRSA infections decreased by 60.4% (1461–578 infections) from 2007 to 2014 (P < 0.0001), while CA-MSSA infections averaged 550 infections annually. Invasive CA-MRSA infections decreased by 67.2% from 61 to 20 infections (P < 0.0001); invasive CA-MSSA averaged 44 infections annually. Among 296 invasive CA-MSSA isolates, 74 (25%) isolates were USA300 and 88 (30%) were pvl+. USA300 declined among invasive CA-MSSA over time (P < 0.008). Musculoskeletal infections were most common (242/296, 82%); 52/242 (21.5%) isolates were USA300 and 62/242 (25.6%) pvl+. All 18 isolates from musculoskeletal infections with deep venous thrombosis and/or septic shock were pvl+ and 16/18 (88.9%) were USA300. Pneumonia isolates were mainly USA300 (8, 66.7%) and pvl+ (11, 91.7%).

Conclusions:

MSSA now cause the majority of invasive CA-S. aureus infections at our institution. Molecular analysis of invasive CA-MSSA isolates suggests strain diversity with USA300 on the decline and that disease presentations are to some extent strain specific. Changes in the CA-S. aureus epidemiology may, in part, be related to changes in immunity to the USA300 clone in the general population.

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