Six Weeks Versus 3 Months of Anticoagulant Treatment for Pediatric Central Venous Catheter-related Venous Thromboembolism

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Abstract

Objective:

Central venous catheters (CVCs) are the single most important predisposing factor for the development of pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE). Treatment recommendations suggest anticoagulation for the duration of 6 weeks to 3 months. This project investigated clinical outcomes associated with 6 weeks compared with 3 months of enoxaparin therapy following diagnosis of a CVC-related VTE.

Methods:

This retrospective cohort study enrolled patients aged 18 years and below treated with enoxaparin with/without unfractionated heparin for a radiologically confirmed CVC-related VTE. Patients were identified using the pharmacy database, radiologic imaging, and medical records. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the duration of anticoagulation (6+1 or 12±2 wk) and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

Results:

Seventy-four patients were included. Higher rates of complete thrombosis resolution were observed in children treated for 6 weeks at treatment cessation (39.4%) and long-term follow-up (61.5%), compared with 3 months (11.8% and 9.0%, respectively).

Conclusions:

Six weeks of treatment for CVC-related VTE may provide noninferior clinical outcomes compared with 3 months of anticoagulation. An international randomized-controlled trial (Kids-DOTT) is underway to explore the optimal duration of anticoagulation for acute-provoked VTE in children. This manuscript highlights that data from such studies is urgently needed.

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