Etiologies and Impact of Readmission Rates in the First 180 Days After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

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Abstract

Introduction:

High rates of patients require readmission to the hospital within 6 months of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We investigated the relationship between readmission rates and outcomes after HSCT in children, adolescents, and young adults (CAYA).

Materials and Methods:

A retrospective analysis of patients (26 years or younger) treated with HSCT was conducted.

Results:

A chart review of 435 CAYA who underwent HSCT from 2008 to 2015 revealed that 171 patients (39%) had at least 1 hospital readmission within 180 days of transplant; 87% received allogeneic and 13% received autologous HSCT. A total of 312 readmission events were reported. The median follow-up time was 31 months. Documented infection (n=99) and graft-versus-host disease complications (n=60) were the most common causes. Higher than 2 readmission rates were associated with lower overall survival (OS) (P=0.001) and disease-free survival (P<0.001) in patients who received allogeneic HSCT. These findings were not found in the autologous HSCT. In a multivariate analysis of those who received allogeneic HSCT, prior treatment with ≥2 chemotherapy regimens (P=0.03) was independent predictor of lower OS. There were also trends noted toward lower OS for patients with documented infections at index admission or subsequent readmissions (P=0.09).

Conclusions:

More than 2 hospital readmissions within 6 months of allogeneic HSCT in CAYA, who are either heavily pretreated or had documented infections at index admission or subsequent readmissions adversely affected the outcomes.

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