Childhood Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm Mimicking Acute Rheumatic Fever: Report of an Unusual Clinical Presentation and Review of Literature

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Abstract

Background:

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is very rarely diagnosed in children with less than 50 cases in the literature.

Observation:

We report a case of childhood BPDCN who mimicked acute rheumatic fever at presentation. Majority of the reported childhood BPDCN received acute lymphoblastic leukemia–like chemotherapy with/without stem cell therapy, whereas those who received acute myeloid leukemia–like therapy predominantly succumbed to disease or sepsis. Overall 68% of the patients were alive and achieved complete remission with an overall prognosis slightly better in children compared with adults.

Conclusions:

The case is reported due to its unique unusual clinical presentation and its rarity in pediatric population.

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