MOG Spectrum Disorders and Role of MOG-Antibodies in Clinical Practice
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies (abs) are present in one third of all children with an acute demyelinating syndrome (ADS). MOG-abs can be found in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), transverse myelitis, isolated optic neuritis (ON), or recurrent demyelinating diseases, such as multiphasic neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) without aquaporin-4 (AQP4) abs or multiphasic ADEM (MDEM), but rarely in children who subsequently develop multiple sclerosis (MS). The presence of MOG-abs is age dependent with the highest seropositivity rates found in young children and an episode of ADEM, whereas older children with MOG-abs present with ON, myelitis, or brainstem symptoms. MOG-abs, initially thought to be associated with a benign disease course, are found in a substantial proportion of children with relapsing episodes associated with high and persisting MOG-ab titers. This review describes, in particular, the increasing spectrum of phenotypes associated with MOG-abs with a focus on clinical characteristics, radiological features, and therapeutic aspects.