Pomalidomide-dexamethasone in refractory multiple myeloma: long-term follow-up of a multi-cohort phase II clinical trial
Despite therapeutic advances, multiple myeloma remains incurable, with limited options for patients with refractory disease. We conducted a large, multi-cohort clinical trial testing various doses and treatment schedules of pomalidomide and dexamethasone (Pom/dex) in patients with refractory multiple myeloma. Overall, 345 patients were enrolled to six cohorts based on number and type of prior lines of therapy, pomalidomide dose and schedule. Median prior lines of therapy were three with near universal prior exposure to proteasome inhibitors and/or immunomodulatory drugs. A confirmed response rate of 35% was noted for all cohorts (range 23-65%) with higher responses in cohorts with fewer prior lines of therapy. Median time to confirmed response was ≤ 2 months and the longest progression-free survival and overall survival seen in any cohort were 13.1 and 47.9 months, respectively. Observed adverse reactions were as expected, with myelosuppression and fatigue being the most common hematologic and non-hematologic adverse events (AEs), respectively. Longer durations of treatment and response, higher response rates and fewer AEs were noted with the 2 mg pomalidomide dose. This is the longest follow-up data for Pom/dex in refractory multiple myeloma and will help shape the real-world utilization of this regimen.