Grading effect of abnormal glucose status on arterial stiffness and a new threshold of 2-h post-load glucose based on a Chinese community study

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Abstract

Aims/Introduction

To investigate the relationship between various glucose metabolic status and arterial stiffness, and further explore the threshold of blood glucose indices for the risk of arterial stiffness.

Materials and Methods

The present cross-sectional study included 4,851 individuals from a Chinese community. Overnight fasting blood glucose and 2-h post-load glucose were sampled. Arterial stiffness was measured as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. The association was examined using generalized linear regression models. The threshold effect was explored using two piecewise linear regression models by the smoothing plot.

Results

After adjustment for covariates, isolated impaired fasting glucose, isolated impaired glucose tolerance, combined glucose intolerance and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were associated with a greater risk of arterial stiffness compared with normal glucose tolerance (B = 18.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42–35.76, P = 0.045; B = 28.51, 95% CI: 3.40–53.62, P = 0.026; B = 60.70, 95% CI: 38.37–83.04, P < 0.001; B = 95.06, 95% CI: 71.88–118.25, P < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, there was a non-linear relationship between 2-h post-load glucose and arterial stiffness. A threshold for 2-h post-load glucose of 6.14 mmol/L was observed for the risk of arterial stiffness.

Conclusions

Impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, combined glucose intolerance and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were related to a greater risk of arterial stiffness compared with normal glucose levels. A threshold for 2-h post-load glucose of 6.14 mmol/L probably exists for the risk of arterial stiffness.

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