Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Mimicking Periapical Pathology in a 39-year-old Man

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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal neoplastic proliferation of Langerhans-type dendritic cells, with more than 50% of cases of LCH seen in children younger than 15 years of age. The most common clinical presentation of LCH is solitary or multiple bony lesions. The jaws are affected in approximately 10%–20% of cases, with a strong predilection for the mandible. The maxilla is involved in only 1% of head and neck cases. When the jaws are involved, lesions of LCH may mimic periapical pathology as seen in patients requiring endodontic therapy or bone loss as seen in periodontal disease. We report the case of a 39-year-old man with LCH involving the posterior maxilla. This is a rare presentation of LCH with respect to both location and patient age. Clinicians should consider LCH when developing a differential diagnosis of an apical radiolucency of vital teeth or teeth that fail to respond to endodontic therapy and be aware of its clinical and radiographic mimics.

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