Trends in the Incidence and In-Hospital Outcomes of Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Thyroid Storm☆
Thyroid storm (TS) constitutes an endocrine emergency with an incidence of up to 10% of all admissions for thyrotoxicosis. Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a rare complication of TS and very limited data exists on its incidence and outcomes. We aimed to estimate the national trends in incidence and outcomes of CS among patients admitted to US hospitals with TS.Materials and Methods
We queried the nationwide inpatient sample for patients with the discharge diagnosis of TS between the years of 2003 and 2011.Results
Based on a weighted estimate, we identified 41,835 patients with a diagnosis of TS, of which 1% developed CS. Patients with CS were more likely to have history of atrial fibrillation, alcohol abuse, preexisting congestive heart failure, coagulopathy, drug use, liver disease, pulmonary circulation disorders, valvular disorders, weight loss, renal failure, fluid and electrolyte disorders as compared to those who did not develop CS (P < 0.001 for all). We observed an increase in incidence of CS from 0.5% in 2003 to 3% in 2011 and a decrease in mortality from 60.5% in 2003 to 20.9% in 2011 (Ptrend < 0.001 for both).Conclusions
We observed that CS is a rare complication of TS, which occurs more commonly in male patients with preexisting structural and atherosclerotic heart disease, and carries a very poor prognosis. Although incidence has increased over the years, mortality from CS has steadily declined.