Incidence and Effect of Thromboembolic Events in Radical Cystectomy Patients Undergoing Preoperative Chemotherapy for Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer

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Abstract

Background

We evaluated the incidence and effect of thromboembolic events (TEEs) in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with preoperative chemotherapy (POC) and radical cystectomy (RC) with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND).

Patients and Methods

We performed a retrospective review of all patients who had undergone POC followed by RC plus PLND for muscle-invasive bladder cancer from June 2000 to January 2013 (n = 357). The chemotherapy type (neoadjuvant vs. induction), incidence and timing of TEE diagnosis (preoperatively vs. ≤ 90 days postoperatively), and effect of TEEs on clinical outcomes were recorded.

Results

Overall, 79 patients (22%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 18%-27%) experienced a TEE: 57 (16%) occurred during POC and 22 (6.2%) were diagnosed postoperatively. Forty patients (11%; 95% CI, 8.1%-15%) required an inferior vena cava filter. We found no significant differences in neoadjuvant versus induction chemotherapy and the risk of TEEs (difference, 3.3%; 95% CI, −5% to 12%; P = .5). No significant difference were found in the rates of POC completion according to the presence of a TEE (difference, 1.0%; 95% CI, −11% to 13%; P = .9). The occurrence of TEE did not significantly affect other perioperative outcomes. The risk of recurrence and overall survival were not associated with TEE on multivariable analysis.

Conclusion

We found a high incidence of TEEs (22%) in patients undergoing POC before RC plus PLND, with a 16% incidence in the preoperative period. TEEs in the POC setting leads to invasive procedures; however, we did not find a significant effect on POC completion or postoperative complication risk. Further research is required to determine whether preventative TEE measures during POC can improve clinical outcomes.

Micro-Abstract

We hypothesized that the incidence of thromboembolic events (TEEs) in patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy (POC) before radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection might be severely underappreciated given the association between cisplatin and TEEs. We conducted a retrospective review of 357 consecutive patients who had received POC at our institution and provide a detailed review of the incidence and timing of the TEEs. The overall TEE rate was 22%, with a 16% incidence in the preoperative setting. Forty patients (11.2%) required an inferior vena cava filter. The occurrence of TEEs did not significantly affect other perioperative outcomes, including the risk of recurrence and overall survival.

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