Long-Term Antitumor Activity and Safety of Enzalutamide Monotherapy in Hormone Naïve Prostate Cancer: 3-Year Open Label Followup Results

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Abstract

Purpose:

A phase 2 study of enzalutamide monotherapy in patients with hormone naïve prostate cancer demonstrated high prostate specific antigen response rates at 25 weeks, 1 year and 2 years with minimal effects on total body bone mineral density and favorable safety. In this followup analysis we evaluated enzalutamide antitumor activity and safety at 3 years.

Materials and Methods:

In a single arm analysis 67 patients with hormone naïve prostate cancer and noncastrate testosterone (230 ng/dl or greater) received enzalutamide 160 mg per day orally until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was the prostate specific antigen response (80% or greater decline from baseline).

Results:

No patients discontinued treatment during year 3. Of 42 patients with prostate specific antigen assessments at 3 years 38 (90.5%, 95% CI 77.4–97.3) maintained a prostate specific antigen response. Of 26 patients with metastases at baseline 17 (65.4%) had a complete or partial response as the best overall response during 3 years. In patients who completed the 3-year visit minimal mean changes from baseline were observed in total body bone mineral density or bone mineral density of the femoral neck, trochanter, spine L1–L4 or forearm (range –2.7% to –0.1%). At 3 years total body fat had increased a mean of 16.5%, total lean body mass had decreased a mean of –6.5% and global health status had minimally decreased from baseline. Common adverse events were gynecomastia, fatigue, hot flush and nipple pain.

Conclusions:

Enzalutamide antitumor activity was maintained in patients with hormone naïve prostate cancer at 3 years. Overall bone mineral density, global health status and safety results were similar to those at 2 years.

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