IL-36 induces cytokine IL-6 and chemokine CXCL8 expression in human lung tissue cells: Implications for pulmonary inflammatory responses

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Abstract

IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ are cytokine members of IL-1 family. Although IL-36 expression was observed in human lung during pulmonary infections, it remains unknown whether IL-36 could act directly on lung tissue cells during pulmonary inflammatory responses. In this study, we showed that IL-36 receptor was expressed in human lung fibroblasts and bronchial epithelial cells. Correspondingly, IL-36α, IL-36β or IL-36γ up-regulated gene expression of cytokine IL-6 and chemokine CXCL8 in human lung fibroblasts and bronchial epithelial cells, and promoted IL-6 and CXCL8 release from human lung fibroblasts and bronchial epithelial cells. The production of IL-6 and CXCL8 in these lung tissues cells induced by IL-36α, IL-36β or IL-36γ was regulated by p38MAPK, ERK or Akt signaling pathways. Taken together, the above results suggest that IL-36–mediated IL-6 and CXCL8 production in human lung fibroblasts and bronchial epithelial cells may be involved in pulmonary inflammation especially caused by bacterial or viral infections.

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