Broadening the spectrum of small-molecule antibacterials by metallic nanoparticles to overcome microbial resistance

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Abstract

Now-a-days development of microbial resistancce have become one of the most important global public health concerns. It is estimated that about 2 million people are infected in USA with multidrug resistant bacteria and out of these, about 23,000 die per year. In Europe, the number of deaths associated with infection caused by MDR bacteria is about 25,000 per year, However, the situation in Asia and other devloping countries is more critical. Considering the increasing rate of antibiotic resistance in various pathogens, it is estimated that MDR organisms can kill about 10 million people every year by 2050.

The use of antibiotics in excessive and irresponsible manner is the main reason towards its ineffectiveness. However, in this context, promising application of nanotechnology in our everyday life has generated a new avenue for the development of potent antimicrobial materials and compounds (nanoantimicrobials) capable of dealing with microbial resistance. The devlopement and safe incorporation of nanoantimicrobials will bring a new revolution in health sector. In this review, we have critically focused on current worldwide situation of antibiotic resistance. In addition, the role of various nanomaterials in the management of microbial resistance and the possible mechanisms for antibacterial action of nanoparticles alone and nanoparticle-antibiotics conjuagte are also discussed.

Graphical abstract

Antimicrobial resistances is responsible for the development of multi-drug resistant pathogens and it become one of the most important global public health concerns. The overuse of antibiotics leads to the microbial resistance. In this context, various nanomaterials showed strong antibacterial activity against MDR pathogens through different mechanisms and hence it is believed that nanotechnology will be the one of solutions to overcome the problem of MDR infections.

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