Human Immunodeficiency Virus Status Differentially Associated With Genital and Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Chinese Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Cross-Sectional Survey

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Little is known about human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and genotypes when considering both anatomic site and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status among men who have sex with men (MSM) in low- and middle-income countries.


A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Beijing, China. HIV serostatus was determined, and genital and anal HPV genotyping were performed from respective swabs.


Of 1155 MSM, 817 (70.7%) had testing for genital (611; 52.9%) and/or anal (671; 58.1%) HPV. Preference for insertive anal sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42–4.75) and syphilis (aOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.01–2.23) were associated with genital HPV. Inconsistent condom use during receptive anal sex (aOR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.17–2.84), and HIV seropositivity (aOR, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.91–4.42) were associated with anal HPV. Among 465 (40.3%) MSM with specimens from both anatomic sites, anal HPV (68%) was more common than genital HPV (37.8%). Prevalence of anal HPV was higher among HIV-infected than uninfected MSM (P < 0.01). Some oncogenic HPV types were more commonly found at the anal site of HIV-infected MSM (P < 0.01).


Human papillomavirus is highly prevalent among Chinese MSM. Anal HPV was more common than genital HPV, and HIV seropositivity was associated with oncogenic HPV types at the anal site.

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