Proanthocyanidins prevent ethanol-induced cognitive impairment by suppressing oxidative and inflammatory stress in adult rat brain
Excessive chronic alcohol consumption enhances brain oxidative and inflammatory stress, resulting in cognitive deficit. This study investigated the potential alleviating effects of proanthocyanidins (PACs) on ethanol-induced cognitive impairment and stress in brain regions including the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. Adult male rats were administered saline, PACs, ethanol, or combinations of ethanol with different doses of PACs for 8 weeks. Then, the Morris water-maze test was performed. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, superoxide dismutase activity, total antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide were chosen as parameters of oxidative stress, whereas tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β chosen as parameters of inflammatory stress. The results indicated that ethanol led to cognitive impairment along with enhanced oxidative and inflammatory stress in brain regions, whereas PACs per se had no significant effects. Moreover, coadministration with PACs in ethanol-treated rats dose dependently rescued cognitive impairment accompanied by suppressed oxidative and inflammatory stress in brain regions. Thus, the protective effects of PACs on ethanol-induced cognitive impairments may be because of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.