The aim of this study was to verify the psychometric properties and the factorial structure of Witte's Risk Behaviour Diagnosis (RBD). This article shows the results of a French version of the RBD adapted to diabetes screening. An exploratory factor analysis was carried out in order to understand the number of underlying factors, a confirmatory factor analysis was performed and the four-factor model proposed by the author and alternative models were compared. The concurrent validity was tested by a correlational analysis with the Perceived Fear Emotions Scale. The results confirmed a stable factor structure for the 12-item version, with three factors reflecting total efficacy, severity of and susceptibility to threat. The value of having a psychometrically valid instrument to assess the impact of fear appeal-based campaigns is linked to the current lack of a comprehensive assessment tool and the importance of preventing health risk behaviours.