Regulation mechanism of oxidative stress induced by high glucose through PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathway in juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)

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Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of oral administration of a high concentration of glucose on the respiratory burst, antioxidant status, and hepatic gene expression of heme oxygenase-1 (ho1) and PI3K/Akt/Nrf2-related signaling molecules in juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Blunt snout bream juveniles with an initial body weight of 19.94 ± 0.58 g were orally fed with a high concentration of glucose (3 g/kg body weight). The results indicated that plasma glucose exhibited a biphasic response. Acute and persistent hyperglycemia due to the oral glucose administration significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the white blood cell count, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin content and caused oxidative stress (significantly increased alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and glucose levels) and early apoptosis of hepatocytes in the fish. Hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities increased rapidly (P < 0.05) as protection from oxidative stress and were downregulated (P < 0.05) because of persistent hyperglycemia. Blood respiratory burst was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) because of hyperglycemia and showed a trend that was opposite to that of plasma glucose. Slight upregulation of nrf2 mRNA and antioxidants acts as a compensative protection mechanism, and the downregulated PI3K/Akt pathway blocked this function of Nrf2. In conclusion, the PI3K/Akt pathway and Nrf2 mediated the antioxidative mechanism independently in the blunt snout bream juveniles subjected to the oral administration of a high glucose concentration.

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