The complement components C1r and C1s play a vital role in immunity with the activation of C1 complex in the classical complement pathway against pathogen infection. In this study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) C1r and C1s orthologs (OnC1r and OnC1s) were identified and characterized. The cDNA of OnC1r and OnC1s ORFs consisted of 1902 bp and 2100 bp of nucleotide sequence encoding polypeptides of 633 and 699 amino acids, respectively. The deduced OnC1r and OnC1s proteins both possessed CUB, EGF, CCP and SP domains, which were significantly homology to teleost. Spatial mRNA expression analysis revealed that the OnC1r and OnC1s were highly expressed in liver. After the in vivo challenges of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the mRNA expressions of OnC1r and OnC1s were significantly up-regulated in liver and spleen, which were consistent with immunohistochemical detection at the protein level. The up-regulation of OnC1r and OnC1s expressions were also demonstrated in head kidney monocytes/macrophages in vitro stimulated with LPS, S. agalactiae, and recombinant OnIFN-γ. Taken together, the results of this study indicated that OnC1r and OnC1s were likely to get involved in the immune response of Nile tilapia against bacterial infection.