Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is related to pro-inflammatory cytokine production and triglyceride deposition in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)
Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is an economically important fish that is farmed by aquaculture for human consumption. Aquacultured turbot are commonly fed a high-lipid diet; however, this diet causes excessive lipid deposition and the overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Studies in mammals have indicated that a relationship exists between pro-inflammatory cytokine overexpression and altered lipid metabolism through the activation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). In this study, we investigated the relationship between SOCS3 and triglyceride (TG) deposition and mechanism of SOCS3 activation in farmed turbot fed high-lipid diet (HLD). TG content increased with SOCS3 production, mediated by toll-like receptor-nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (TLR-NFκB) signaling in the liver of turbot fed a HLD and in turbot primary liver cells incubated with oleic acid (OA). Overexpression of SOCS3 increased TG deposition via the increased production of mature sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (m-SREBP-1). Knockdown of SOCS3 in turbot primary liver cells resulted in normalized TG deposition and decreased m-SREBP-1 production. These results suggest that the HLD and OA can induce cytokine expression by activating the TLR-NFκB signaling pathways, resulting in increased SOCS3 expression. It is proposed that SOCS3 enhances m-SREBP-1 production, leading to TG deposition. These findings provide important new insights into the relationship between cytokine expression and TG deposition and mechanism of HLD-induced pro-inflammatory response, which could help to improve the health of farmed turbot and a better understanding of fish immunity.