Proliferative index is a prognostic feature of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, and has more recently emerged as a predictor of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) local recurrence and progression when used in combination with other predictive markers. Ki67 is the most commonly used immunohistochemical marker of proliferative index. However, high interobserver and interlaboratory variability has been reported, in part due to differences in staining methodologies, positivity thresholds, and approaches to quantification. Phosphohistone-H3 (pHH3) is a marker of mitotic activity that has emerged as a more reliable indicator of proliferation in other neoplasms. Quantification of proliferative index was compared in 48 cases of DCIS using Ki67 and pHH3 immunohistochemistry. A strong linear relationship between Ki67 and pHH3 quantification was observed (P<0.0001, R2=0.75). Interobserver concordance was modestly higher for pHH3 than Ki67 proliferative indices. However, positive pHH3 staining was more dichotomous (either negative or uniformly positive) and specific for mitotic activity, and interpretation of pHH3 proliferative indices was significantly faster than that of Ki67. The strong correlation between pHH3 and Ki67 supports the use of this marker as a measure of proliferative activity in DCIS.