Increasing Body Mass Index is Associated With Worse Perioperative Outcomes and Higher Costs in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery

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Abstract

Study Design.

Retrospective review.

Objective.

To investigate associations of obesity with outcomes and costs of adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery.

Summary of Background Data.

Increasing body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for complications after nondeformity spine surgery, but its effect on ASD surgery is unknown.

Methods.

We reviewed records of 244 ASD patients who underwent spinal arthrodesis of ≥5 levels from 2010 to 2014 and categorized them by World Health Organization BMI groups: BMI < 30, nonobese (64%); BMI = 30–34.99, class-I obese (21%); and BMI ≥ 35, class-II/III obese (15%). We used multivariate logistical regression to determine odds of transfusion, inpatient complications, prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay (>2 days), prolonged total length of hospital stay (LOS) (>1 week), and high episode-of-care costs (>$80,000).

Results.

Preoperative characteristics were similar among groups, except sex, preoperative hemoglobin concentration, and performance/type of osteotomy (all, P = 0.01). On univariate analysis, the groups differed in rates of prolonged ICU stay (P < 0.001), prolonged total LOS (P = 0.016), and high episode-of-care costs (P = 0.013). Inpatient complication rates were similar among groups (P = 0.218). On multivariate analysis, compared with nonobese patients, class I obese patients had greater odds of prolonged ICU stay (odds ratio [OR] = 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06, 4.71). Class II/III obese patients also had greater odds of prolonged total LOS (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.71), and high episode-of-care costs (OR = 2.91, 95% CI: 1.31, 6.50).

Conclusion.

In ASD surgery, BMI ≥35 is associated with significantly worse perioperative outcomes and higher costs compared with those of nonobese patients.

Conclusion.

Level of Evidence: 3

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