The treatment of paraprotein-related kidney disease

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Myeloma kidney and amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis remain the principal kidney complications of paraproteins. In this review, we update readers to many of the recent advances which have occurred in the care and outcomes for patients with these presentations.

Recent findings

Myeloma kidney has historically caused a severe acute kidney injury with very poor outcomes. The combination of new diagnostic techniques, enabling a rapid diagnosis and novel chemotherapy agents has transformed these poor outcomes for the better. Two multicentre randomized controlled trials have recently evaluated if the removal of free light chains by high cut-off haemodialysis improves renal outcomes beyond effective chemotherapy alone. Although we await the full articles of these studies to be published, abstracts suggested the studies will have contradictory primary results. In the field of AL amyloidosis, there are now novel criteria for the risk stratification of kidney outcomes which can be used in combination with markers of early kidney response to provide clinicians with powerful tools to guide patient discussions.

Summary

Across both AL amyloidosis and myeloma kidney patient outcomes continue to improve. Principally this improvement has been driven by the continuing development of novel chemotherapy agents in this field.

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