Prevalence, risk factors, and prognosis of orthostatic hypotension in diabetic patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a major clinical sign of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in diabetic patients. Our aim was to quantitatively evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of OH in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and assess its prognosis.


A comprehensive search of the PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Chinese Journal, Wanfang, and SINOMED databases was conducted for related published work up to September 25, 2016, and manually searched eligible studies from the references in accordance with the inclusion criteria.


We included 21 studies in the analysis, with a total sample size of 13,772. The pooled prevalence of OH in DM was 24% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19–28%). Potential risk factors, that is, glycosylated hemoglobin A (HbA1c) (odds ratio [OR], 1.13, 95% CI, 1.07–1.20), hypertension (OR, 1.02, 95% CI, 1.01–1.02), and diabetic nephropathy (OR, 2.37, 95% CI, 1.76–3.19), were significantly associated with OH in DM. In addition, the prognosis of OH in DM was associated with higher risk of total mortality and cardiovascular events.


The pooled prevalence of OH in DM appears high. HbA1c, hypertension, and diabetic nephropathy are risk factors for OH in DM. OH indicates poor prognosis in diabetic patients. Attention should be focused on diabetic patients with the stated risk factors to prevent OH.

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