Tranexamic Acid for the Management of Obstetric Hemorrhage
Obstetric hemorrhage remains the most common cause of maternal mortality worldwide. It is believed that increased fibrinolytic activity, secondary to release and activation of endothelial tissue plasminogen activator, is involved in its pathogenesis. Tranexamic acid (TXA), an antifibrinolytic agent, has been shown to be beneficial in trauma patients if used within 3 hours of injury. A recent large randomized controlled trial showed that TXA given to hemorrhaging women within 3 hours after delivery was associated with decreased risk of death resulting from bleeding with no increase in thromboembolic complications. Limited evidence suggests that prophylactic TXA reduces blood loss at the time of delivery and decreases transfusion rates in the obstetric population. Tranexamic acid appears to be a safe and effective option in the treatment of obstetric hemorrhage. In addition, the limited available evidence supports the need for a well-designed adequately powered clinical trial to test its benefit as a prophylactic agent.