Impairment of gill structural integrity by manganese deficiency or excess related to induction of oxidative damage, apoptosis and dysfunction of the physical barrier as regulated by NF-κB, caspase and Nrf2 signaling in fish
This study is for the first time to explore the possible effects of dietary manganese (Mn) on structural integrity and the related signaling in the gills of fish. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were fed with six diets containing graded levels of Mn [3.65–27.86 mg Mn/kg diet] for 8 weeks. The results firstly demonstrated that Mn deficiency aggravated inflammation indicated by up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, and interleukin 1β mRNA levels) and down-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10, transforming growth factor-β1) mRNA levels, which might be partially related to the up-regulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65) and down-regulation of nuclear inhibitor factor κBα (iκBα) mRNA levels in the gills of fish. Meanwhile, Mn deficiency caused DNA fragmentation, which might be partially associated with the up-regulation of the apoptosis signaling (caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9) in the gills of fish. Furthermore, Mn deficiency-caused apoptosis might be partly related to the increases of oxidative damage that indicated by increases of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and decreases of antioxidant enzyme activities [included Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)]. However, Mn deficiency only down-regulated MnSOD and GST mRNA levels, which might be partially related to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) inhibitor (Keap1), and only down-regulated the gene expression of claudin-b and claudin-15 to disrupt the TJ in the gills of fish. Excessive Mn led to negative effects on partial parameters studied in the gills of fish. The optimal levels of Mn based on protecting against ROS, MDA and PC in the gills of grass carp were 17.04, 16.86 and 21.20 mg/kg diet, respectively. Collectively, Mn deficiency or excess could cause inflammation, apoptosis, antioxidant system disruption and change tight junction protein (claudin-b and claudin-15) transcription abundances, which might be partially related to the NF-κB p65, caspase-(3,8,9) and Nrf2 signaling, in the gills of fish.