There is a pressing need for effective needle-free vaccines that are stable enough for use in the developing world and stockpiling. The inclusion of the cationic lipid DDA and the PEG-containing moiety TPGS into liposomes has the potential to improve mucosal delivery. The aim of this study was to develop stable lyophilized cationic liposomes based on these materials suitable for nasal antigen delivery.
Liposomes containing DDA and TPGS were developed. Size and zeta potential measurements, ex vivo, CLSM cell penetration study and cell viability investigations were made. Preliminary immunisation and stability studies using ovalbumin were performed.
The liposomes exhibited suitable size and charge for permeation across nasal mucosa. DDA and TPGS increased tissue permeation in ex vivo studies and cell uptake with good cell viability. The liposomes improved immune response both locally and vaginally when compared to i.m administration or control liposomes delivered nasally. Additionally, the lyophilized products demonstrated good stability in terms of Tg, size and antigen retention.
This study has shown that the novel liposomes have potential for development as a mucosal vaccine delivery system. Furthermore, the stability of the lyophilized liposomes offers potential additional benefits in terms of thermal stability over liquid formats.