Characterization of Wild Blueberry Polyphenols Bioavailability and Kinetic Profile in Plasma over 24-h Period in Human Subjects
Understanding the metabolic fate of polyphenols from plant foods can aid in developing dietary recommendations that maximize their health benefits. Wild blueberries (WBB) provide a distinctive composition of dietary anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid (CGA).Methods and results:
This is a single blind, randomized, two-arm crossover controlled study. Human subjects ingested a WBB beverage (25 g freeze dried WBB powder) or placebo beverage with a meal and plasma was collected over 24 h. Anthocyanins, CGA and their metabolites were characterized and quantified in beverages and in plasma using targeted and non-targeted mass analyses. Bioavailability of WBB anthocyanins and 3-CGA was 1.1 and 0.2%, respectively. Parent anthocyanins and 3-CGA peaked ≈2 h post ingestion, while phase II metabolites, including glucuronide conjugates of peonidin, delphinidin, cyanidin and petunidin peaked ≈ 2.6, 6.3, 7 and 8.8 h, respectively. Phenolic acids (metabolites) peaked between 0.5 and 24 h. Biphasic responses were evident suggesting preferential enterohepatic recycling for some compounds.Conclusion:
The data indicate bioavailability of early and late phase WBB metabolites peaking at different times during the 24 h period, which may be important for maximizing their biological activity.