An update on new and unique uses of botulinum toxin in movement disorders
The therapeutic applications of botulinum toxin (BoNT) have grown manifold since its initial approval in 1989 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of strabismus, blepharospasm, and other facial spasms. Although it is the most potent biologic toxin known to man, long-term studies have established its safety in the treatment of a variety of neurologic and non-neurologic disorders. This review focuses on some novel and uncommon uses of BoNT in the treatment of movement disorders, such as oromandibular dystonia, including bruxism, anterocollis, camptocormia, tremor, tics, tardive and levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and restless legs syndrome. Despite a paucity of randomized controlled trials and lack of FDA approval for these movement disorders, there is growing body of evidence that BoNT provides benefit to patients with these hyperkinetic movement disorders and that BoNT is a safe treatment when used by clinicians skilled in the administration of the drug for these conditions.