Deficiency ofN-acetyltransferase increases the interactions of isoniazid with endobiotics in mouse liver
Acetylation is the major metabolic pathway of isoniazid (INH) mediated by N-acetyltransferases (NATs). Previous reports suggest that slow acetylators have higher risks of INH hepatotoxicity than rapid acetylators, but the detailed mechanisms remain elusive. The current study used Nat1/2(−/−) mice to mimic NAT slow metabolizers and to investigate INH metabolism in the liver. We found that INH acetylation is abolished in the liver of Nat1/2(−/−) mice, suggesting that INH acetylation is fully dependent on NAT1/2. In addition to the acetylation pathway, INH can be hydrolyzed to form hydrazine (Hz) and isonicotinic acid (INA). We found that INA level was not altered in the liver of Nat1/2(−/−) mice, indicating that deficiency of NAT1/2 has no effect on INH hydrolysis. Because INH acetylation was abolished and INH hydrolysis was not altered in Nat1/2(−/−) mice, we expected an extremely high level of INH in the liver. However, we only observed a modest accumulation of INH in the liver of Nat1/2(−/−) mice, suggesting that there are alternative pathways in INH metabolism in NAT1/2 deficient condition. Our further studies revealed that the conjugated metabolites of INH with endobiotics, including fatty acids and vitamin B6, were significantly increased in the liver of Nat1/2(−/−) mice. In summary, this study illustrated that deficiency of NAT1/2 decreases INH acetylation, but increases the interactions of INH with endobiotics in the liver. These findings can be used to guide future studies on the mechanisms of INH hepatotoxicity in NAT slow metabolizers.