Reactive oxygen species (ROS) imparts a dual effect on multicellular organisms, wherein high levels are usually harmful, and low levels could facilitate in combating pathogenic microorganisms; therefore, the regulation of ROS production is critical. Previous studies have suggested that ROS contributes to resistance to the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or Vibrio alginolyticus in Litopenaeus vannamei. However, the regulation of ROS metabolism in L. vannamei remains elusive. In the present study, we proved that the overexpression of L. vannamei reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (LvROMO1) increases ROS production in Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that LvROMO1 is induced by WSSV or V. alginolyticus infection and β-glucan or microcystin (MC-LR) injection. Further investigation showed that LvROMO1 responding to MC-LR, thereby inducing hemocytes to undergo apoptosis, and ultimately resulting in hepatopancreatic damage. And LvROMO1 downregulation induced an increase in the cumulative mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp by reducing ROS production and suppressing the expression of antimicrobial peptides genes. The findings of present study suggest that LvROMO1 plays an important role in ROS production in L. vannamei and is involved in innate immunity.