Dietary Intake Contributions of Food and Beverages by Source and Food Security Status in US Adults.
To compare the consumption patterns and diet quality of foods and beverages obtained from various sources by food security status.DESIGN
Cross-sectional analysis of 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data.PARTICIPANTS
A total of 4,789 adults (aged >19 years) with dietary intake and food security data.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
The contribution of foods and beverages to energy, nutrients, and diet quality by locations where food was obtained was compared across food security status.ANALYSIS
Descriptive analysis and logistic regression.RESULTS
Almost all US adults consumed food and beverages obtained from grocery stores, regardless of food security status (about 95%), which accounted for one half to two thirds of total macronutrient intakes. The diet quality of foods from grocery stores was better in highly food-secure adults. Convenience stores are used most by very low food-secure adults; those foods had the poorest diet quality profile. Dietary patterns of marginally food-secure adults more closely resembled sources and intakes of low and very low food-secure adults.CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
Food-insecure adults use food sources differently, resulting in diet quality differences of foods and beverages obtained. Place-based interventions in the food environment may have differential effects by food security status.